(October 2003 – January 2004)


Eco Friends’ hallmark has been its systematic monitoring of pollution in the river Ganga and Ganga Action Plan (GAP). This monitoring has helped Eco Friends in bringing to the fore the real progress made by the government in checking pollution in the Ganga. Through its monitoring reports, Eco Friends has exposed the failure of GAP functioning and put the civic agencies on their toes. Eco Friends has found that the GAP Phase-I has failed to tap significantly the discharge of raw domestic sewage and raw tannery effluent from entering the river waters. The treatment plants to treat the tannery effluent and sewage to the desired and safe levels have also fallen short of expectations.

Ganga Action Plan (GAP) was the name given by Late Sri Rajiv Gandhi to the programme, which aimed to make Ganga pollution-free. GAP was launched in 1986. In Kanpur, GAP was executed with the help of Dutch Government. In spite of almost two decades time now, and an expenditure of about 150 crore rupees, no satisfactory result can be seen. The following report bears this out:

Name of the drain (name given as per the point of discharge)
Pre-GAP status
Post-GAP status (as claimed by the govt.)
Actual status
Bhaironghat- Raw water source for Kanpur
5 nalas- Jageshwar, Jewra, Ranighat, Kheora & Nawabganj- discharged sewage into the dredged channel reaching the intake point
Sewer lines, which overflowed into these nalas, were cleaned and all the drains (nalas) tapped.
Bhaironghat raw water intake point, which is the primary source of drinking water for at least 60 % of the population of Kanpur, is now suffering from severe contamination from at least 20 drains in the upstream of water intake point.

There are two drains (nalas), just few yards from raw water intake point. One of the drains, which carry waste from a TB hospital, is also reaching the intake point. These drains were tapped under GAP-I, as claimed by the government. There are several small drains (nalas) in the upstream of water intake point which connect to these two drains and then finally enter raw water intake point. These drains were supposed to be diverted to Nawabganj Intermediate Pumping Station.

Above all, the diversion, which was done at intake point to pump the sewage on to the other side of the channel, was not done properly. As a result, 100 % raw sewage from all the drains is finding its way to raw water intake point.

Besides, open defecation, washing of clothes, bathing, use of detergents etc. at raw water intake point go on unabated.

The pathetic condition of Intake point speaks volumes of negligence of the government and violation of court orders. The most horrifying fact is that people use this turbid and highly contaminated drain water for daily activities like bathing.

Sisamau nala
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Discharged 120 MLD of sewage in Ganga
Only partly tapped- still discharges more than 100 MLD sewage in Ganga
The Sisamau drain is an epitome of sewage fall. It discharges more than 100 MLD of raw sewage directly into river Ganga.

The mainstream of the river is far from the point where Sisamau drain falls. The sewage meets Ganga, having traversed a distance of 5 km.

The total load of Sisamau nala was around 120 MLD, out of which around 20 MLD is being tapped and diverted to Parmat IPS and the remaining 100 MLD will be tapped and diverted to the proposed treatment plant in the South of Kanpur under Ganga Action Plan Support Project (GAPSP). Latest reports and information indicate that the future of GAPSP is in doldrums and therefore, Sisamau Nala will keep pouring 100 MLD of raw sewage in Ganga.

Parmath Ghat nala

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Discharged raw sewage directly into Ganga from Jail, Parmat Colony, Khalasi Line and Gwal Toli and Sisamau drain
All these nalas were tapped.
Parmat ghat nala is situated just along the Parmat temple. It receives some sewage from Sisamau Nala, sewage from Jail, Parmat colony, Khalasi line and Gwal Toli area. It still discharges sewage directly into Ganga. The capacity of the Parmat IPS is 18 MLD and it receives around 20 MLD of sewage from Sisamau nala, around 8-10 MLD from Jail, Parmat colony, Khalasi Line and Gwal Toli area.

Parmat ghat area is highly polluted and completely filled with filth. Several animal carcasses can be seen along the ghat. No efforts have been made to collect the waste generated from the temple and to stop the drain carrying raw sewage directly into Ganga.

Jail nala
Discharged raw sewage directly into Ganga.
Tapped under GAP
Small drains carrying sewage from the Jail premises find its way to Ganga.
Police Lines nala
Discharge from the residences of the Police Lines used to flow into Ganga.
Tapped under GAP.
The condition of these drains remains unchanged. Two small nalas still flow into the Ganga. Police personnel who are living in barracks have constructed toilets on these drains, which are carrying all the sewage to Ganga.

Also the backyard of the Police Lines has become a dumping ground for their garbage and a huge volume of garbage can be seen littered in the backyard.

Bhagwat Das Ghat nala
This nala discharged raw sewage into the Ganga.
Tapped under GAP.
Bhagwat Das Ghat nala receives maximum sewage from the Guptar ghat IPS. The capacity of this IPS is 3 MLD but the waste which reaches here is approximately double of its capacity. Thus around 3-4 MLD of raw sewage is being bypassed directly into Ganga.
OEF nala
These nalas
Discharged into the Ganga
Tapped under GAP
There are two drains from OEF, which are discharging their waste into Ganga. One carries industrial effluent and the other one sewage from the factory.
Gola Ghat nala
This nala discharged raw sewage into the Ganga
Tapped under GAP
This is in the Cantonment area. The drain discharges its load of raw sewage into the Ganga. People have made house connections directly into this nala. There is a big dhobi (washing) ghat in operation here.

There is no sewage system in the whole area, which results into the discharge of domestic sewage directly into Ganga.
Massacre ghat nala
This nala discharged into the Ganga
Tapped under GAP
Raw sewage from the residents at the ghat finds its way into Ganga.
Dabka nala
This nala discharged raw sewage into the Ganga
Tapped under GAP
There are two drains, one carries domestic waste and the other one-tannery effluent. The Interception and Diversion (I&D) works of GAP have failed completely, and as a result huge volume of raw sewage is reaching Ganga. The drain carrying domestic waste (4 - 5 MLD) from city is reaching Ganga instead of MPS.

On Jan 28, 2004, Eco Friends found the condition even more pathetic. The tannery effluent was being bypassed to Ganga due to closure of Chabelepurwa IPS.

Nalas in Jajmau
Pre-GAP status not known.
The number of drains has increased with passage of time.
Many small nalas from the settlements on the edge of the river discharge raw sewage into the Ganga. These settlements, it seems were not connected with the existing sewer lines under GAP I. No attempt is being made to connect these settlements with the sewer lines. These settlements also dump their solid waste into Ganga.

Intermediate Pumping Stations (IPS), City Sewage

There are 4 IPS, one each at Nawabganj, Parmat Ghat, Baba Ghat and Guptar Ghat. The purpose of the IPS was to pump the sewage received from different parts of the city to 130 MLD sewage treatment plant created under GAP in Jajmau area of Kanpur. A brief report on each of them follows:

IPS, Nawabganj

There are 5 pumping sets (PS), 15 HP (2), 30 HP (2), 40 HP (1) and one Diesel Generator (DG) set of 250 KVA. All the PS are functioning properly. The DG set has been working properly, but on an average is operated for 1-2 hours/day against 4-5 hrs/day of power cuts.

Logbooks reveal that on an average the plant is run for 2 hours daily in the absence of power supply and the DG set consumes 17 litres of diesel per hour. This means at least 1020 litres of diesel is needed in a month to keep the plant functional. Unfortunately the IPS does not get the required amount of diesel.

IPS, Parmath

Parmath IPS has 3 PS of 125 HP each, 2 PS of 50 HP each and 2 of 100 HP each. The capacity of this IPS is around 18 MLD. The IPS has two DG sets of 200 KVA and 250 KVA.

Logbooks reveal that on an average the plant is run for 3 hours daily in the absence of power supply and the DG sets consume 52 litres of diesel per hour. This means at least 4680 litres of diesel is needed in a month to keep the plant functional. But the required amount of diesel is not supplied to the IPS.

IPS, Baba Ghat : There are three pumping sets of 25 HP each and one DG set of 75 KVA. The capacity of the IPS is between 3-4 MLD. On November 18, 2003 the IPS was found to be not functioning properly. The generator room was locked and the key was not lying with the employees of the IPS. The logbooks were not maintained properly, and the employees were found to be unaware of the capacity of the pumping station. On January 26, 2004 Eco Friends’ monitoring team was shocked to see that the IPS was completely unattended and the total sewage was being bypassed to Ganga.

IPS, Guptar Ghat : This IPS has 3 pumping sets of 15 HP each and 1 DG set of 45 KVA. The capacity of this IPS is 3 MLD but it receives the sewage, which is double than its capacity during peak hours. More than half of the sewage reaching the IPS is being let into Ganga every day through Bhagwatdas Ghat drain. The plant remains dysfunctional during power cuts because of shortage of diesel supply. OnJanuary 26, 2004 Eco Friends team found the IPS locked.

Tannery Effluent : Intermediate Pumping Stations are meant for collecting and transporting raw tannery effluent to Combined Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP). Before GAP, raw effluent from the leather industry in Jajmau area of Kanpurr used to flow unabated into Ganga through four drains – Dabka, Bengalighat, Burihyaghat and Wajidpur. A conveyance system including four IPS was built under GAP-I to collect and carry tannery effluent to the CETP. Untreated tannery effluent is still discharged into Ganga, owing to malfunctioning of the IPS.

IPS Tannery Effluent : Chabilepurwa: On November 17, 2003, we found that from August, 2003 the maintenance and operation of all the four IPS had been handed over to a private company named ‘Mahavel’ on a contract basis. The supply of diesel, however, still remained into the hands of Uttar Pradesh Jal Nigam.

This IPS has 3 pumping sets of 40 HP each and one DG set of 125 KVA. The sewage pumping capacity of this IPS is about 1.5 MLD. The generator set consumes 16 litres of diesel per hour while the average power failure in the area is around 4-5 hours daily. Hence the weekly requirement of the diesel is 480 litres approximately. The logbook clearly revealed that from October 24 onwards there had been no diesel supply to the IPS, as a result of which the tannery effluent during power cuts, was bypassed to river Ganga through Dapka Nala. The workers also informed that the IPS received huge quantity of domestic sewage. The team also observed that the nets used to block the solid waste at the IPS were broken and the solid waste was entering the conveyance system.

The IPS has 6 employees including 3 sweepers and 3 operators and their salary is Rs 92 per day. The workers complain that they never get salary on time.

On January 28, 2004 Eco Friends team found the IPS totally closed. On further enquiry, the team was informed that since the plant was handed over to a private agency ‘Mahavel’, the payments were not made. The daily wages employees were agitated and in protest they had closed down all the IPS since January 17, 2004.

Sheetla Bazar IPS : It has 3 pumping sets of 60 HP each and 1 DG set of 180 KVA. The DG set consumes 32 litres of diesel per hour. The Sheetlabazar IPS is the biggest one with a capacity of 3.5 MLD. This IPS receives excess load from some unregistered units. There are 6 employees, out of which 3 are private and 3 government. The government employees were missing from the IPS.
On January 28, 2004 Eco Friends team found the IPS closed.




Burhiya Ghat IPS : It has 3 pumping sets, 2 of 20 HP each and 1 of 40 HP. It has one DG set of 82.5 KVA and it consumes 12 litres of diesel per hour. Conditions were worse at this IPS. All the three pumps were dysfunctional and no diesel had been supplied since October 12, 2003. There were 3 operators and 3 sweepers who complained that they had not received their salary for the last two months. On January 28, 2004 Eco Friends team found the IPS closed.

Wajidpur IPS : It has 3 PS of 30 HP each and one DG set. On Nov 17, 2003 we found that the two PS were not working for the last 4 months. Diesel ended on 23rd Oct. and had not been supplied since then. Most of the effluent was being bypassed to Ganga. On January 28, 2004 Eco Friends team found the IPS closed.





General Manager, UPJN informed that UPJN had been diverting the GAP money to keep the plant functioning but now it was becoming difficult for them to run the plants. Project Manager, UPJN informed that Kanpur Nagar Nigam had paid only Rs 6 lacs out of Rs 8.5 crore and similarly tanneries had paid only Rs 2.5 crore out of Rs 8.5 crore. As per the Supreme Court directive, the tanners and the KNN are supposed to share the O&M costs of 36 MLD CETP on 50:50 basis.

Main Pumping Station

It receives the city sewage and then pumps it to treatment plants. As on January 28, 2004, it was receiving around 110 MLD of sewage against its installed capacity of 160 MLD. Subsequently, it pumps 5 MLD to the 5 MLD STP, 25 MLD against 27 MLD to the 36 MLD CETP, 40-45 MLD to the 130 MLD STP and the rest is bypassed to the irrigation channel or Ganga. The employees deputed at MPS complain that the domestic sewage, which reaches MPS, contains tannery effluent also.

On January 28, 2004 Eco Friends team found the MPS in complete disorder. Employees were missing and untreated sewage was being bypassed to Ganga.

Treatment Plants


The main purpose of setting up this plant was to assess the technical feasibility of the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) technology for treating wastewater. After commissioning of the 36 MLD plant, the 5 MLD plant is being used to treat domestic sewage. The 5 MLD treatment plant was given on contract to M/s Mahavels for its operation and maintenance. The contract was cancelled on January 17 for reasons unknown.


The objective of the plant was to treat the 9 MLD of effluent from the toxic leather industry. This was supposed to be done by mixing the tannery effluent and sewage in the ratio of 1:3 and then further treating it. But this is not being done. Since the handing over of the plant to M/S Mahavels for O&M, the aerators, bar screens, centrifuges, PSTs are having some or the other problem. Mahavels claims that only parts of the plant have been handed over to them. Mahavels also informed that the plant was in bad shape when it was transferred to them. The CETP went from worse to worst in the hands of the private contractor. The plant had to be shut down due to paucity of funds. Now the contract has been cancelled and CETP is again in the hands of Jal Nigam. Jal Nigam does not have the resources to run the plants. In past 4 months entire toxic tannery effluent was either supplied for irrigation or bypassed into Ganga.

Chrome Recovery Plants (CRP)

There are 220 chrome-tanning units in Kanpur. These units are a cause for concern as they discharge chromium into the waste stream. Out of these 220, 110 units process more than 50 hides per day and are required to install CRP individually. Out of these 110 chrome-tanning units, more than 80 have set up Chrome Recovery Plants (CRPs). For the rest, which process less than 50 hides, Common CRP is to be set up. A project proposal has been submitted in National River Conservation Directorate (NRCD) and as soon as it is approved, work will start on it. The approval is awaited since 2000.


The plant is working much below its installed capacity of 130 MLD. It is able to treat only 45 MLD of sewage (35% of the capacity) mainly because of the limitation of the sludge handling facilities. Four centrifuges provided for handling the sludge are almost non-functional. Out of 18 aerators only 11 are working and out of 4 RSPH only 1 is working (at least 2 RSPH should work). The non-withdrawal of excess sludge from the system restricts the capacity utilization of the plant. The presence of sulphides in the domestic sewage (some tanneries discharge their effluent into the sewage line) puts instantaneous demand on the available oxygen, thereby reducing the capacity of the system to degrade the organic matter. The presence of sulphides also is responsible for the corrosion of the centrifuge system. Several new sludge-drying beds (SDBs) have been constructed. During monsoon the treatment plant becomes dysfunctional owing to excessive sewage reaching the plant.

Status of Sludge from treatment plants :

Toxic tannery sludge continues to pose environment and health hazard in the area where it’s being dumped. It was planned to dump the hazardous tannery sludge generated at the 36 MLD CETP with 61 sludge-drying beds (around 40 cu m/day or approx.40 tonnes/day) at a safe landfill site at Rooma. Project Planning & Coordination Unit (PPCU) informs that the DPR has been sent to NRCD for approval. KNN would execute the scheme before March 2004.The approval for the scheme is pending with NRCD since 2000. It was decided that till this site comes up, the sludge would be dumped at Rooma by spreading plastic sheets in the allocated pits. But no such precaution is being taken and sludge is being dumped indiscriminately at Rooma and the area adjacent to the treatment plant.

Sludge from the 5 MLD STP with 8 sludge-drying beds (3 cu m/day or approx. 3 tons/day) is sold to a contractor who sells it as fertilizer. Sludge from the 130 MLD STP with 24 beds (35 cu m/day or approx. 35 tons/day) is also dumped near the treatment plant.

CETP alone generates hundreds of trucks of sludge daily, out of which only 3-4 trucks are carted away. Rest of the sludge, which is hazardous in nature, is simply dumped outside of the treatment plants. The toxic tannery sludge containing Chromium and other toxicants is piled up in 2 sq km area, and is contaminating the groundwater of the area and p ses. The purpose of these PETP is to screen the solid waste and settle down the heavy particles through the process of sedimentation and let the effluent flow into the conveyance system. The PETP produces sludge, which is hazardous in nature and therefore, should be disposed off in a safe way. But the sludge is being disposed off indiscriminately in and around Jajmau area.

Non-point sources of pollution

Dead Body Dumping

On January 29, 2004 Eco friends counted 3 bodies in a 5 km stretch (from Gola ghat to Siddhanath ghat, Jajmau). The number of bodies, which used to be floated in the river, has come down and rarely the bodies are allowed to be dumped in the river from Kanpur side but unburnt and partly burnt bodies are being floated unchecked from Unnao side of the river. The careless and disinterested authorities in Unnao are thwarting the efforts being made in Kanpur to stop the practice of body dumping in the river.

Status report of Crematoria

There are three crematoria in the Kanpur stretch of the river--one each at Bhaironghat and Bhagwat Das ghat, Kanpur and one at Mishra Colony, Unnao. Minor technical faults in these crematoria at regular intervals and electricity dues have created the notion among the people that the crematoria are never functioning.

Eco Friends raised this issue in the progress review meeting for Ganga Action Plan Support Project (GAPSP) on February 7, 2003 orders were passed to make these crematoria functional. District Magistrate, Kanpur took steps to make these crematoria functional and arranged for the payments to be made directly to the Kanpur Nagar Nigam(KNN) instead of police for the cremation of unclaimed bodies in electric crematoria.

Two different teams of engineers, one from Varanasi and the other from Kanpur were called to repair these crematoria. The electrical faults were removed (new wiring was done and the transformer changed) and the crematoria were made functional by the first week of June. In spite of all the efforts the crematoria did not receive bodies till the second week of September. It was all because of negligence of the police department who did not bother to bring the unclaimed bodies to the crematoria. The problem was again brought to the notice of the local administration.

Eco Friends team checked the status of the crematoria on Dec 29, 2003. The team found that from September 10, 2003 to December 29, 2003 110 unclaimed bodies and 45 claimed bodies were brought to Bhairon Ghat crematorium alone. Bhagwat Das crematorium also received 10 bodies (9 unclaimed and 1 claimed). The Bhairon ghat crematorium receives more bodies because it is close to mortuary and the cremation ghat is better maintained than Bhagwat das ghat crematorium. The Mishra Colony crematorium remains closed and no effort has been made to make this crematorium functional.

Bathing, washing of clothes and open defecation in and along the Ganga :

People defecate along Ganga, causing pollution in the river. Even though public conveniences have been set up at almost all the ghats, the practice of open defecation continues unchecked. As per the directives of Allahabad High Court, the area around the Water Intake Point should be cordoned off and the Jal Police should regularly monitor the point and challan the offenders. However, none has been challaned so far and the area, which serves as the raw water source for the town, remains highly unhygienic. The current state of water intake point makes it explicit that the concerned authorities have turned a blind eye to the prevailing conditions at the intake point.

Washermen continue to wash clothes at Golaghat and Koylaghat. The water pump at the newly constructed washing place near Golaghat is out of order. Wastewater from both the dhobighats, constructed at Golaghat and Bhaironghat by DUDA, is getting discharged directly into the river.

Use of soap, oil and detergent while bathing and cattle wallowing continue without any check throughout the river stretch, despite the ban imposed on such activities by the High Court.

Fishing & Turtle poaching : Eco Friends’ team found hundreds of fishermen fishing in a 10 km stretch of Ganga in Kanpur, despite the fact that fishing is banned between Farrukhabad and Allahabad stretch of the river.

Ganga Action Plan Support Project(GAPSP)

Under the GAPSP various projects have been planned for water supply extension, renovation and cleaning up of old sewer lines and laying of new ones, renovation of old pumping stations and building up of new ones. The programme also envisages setting up of a 200 MLD UASB plant for treating the domestic sewage of the Kanpur city, which was not taken up in GAP-I, and solid waste management.

The scheme for Water Supply Extension had received the sanction on August 10, 1999 at an estimated cost of Rs. 1061.05 lakhs. 98.06 % of the scheme has been completed by UPJN.

Renovation of existing sewers at Kidwai Nagar area has also been completed by GPCU, UPJN at a cost of Rs. 274.08 lakhs. PPCU contends that these schemes would help overcome the major bottlenecks of the South city drainage district and improve the sewerage system of the entire South city.

Two IPS are also under construction at Munshipurwa and Rakhimandi : The IPS at Munshipurwa (75 MLD) being built at an estimated cost of Rs. 795.82 lakhs is proposed to be completed by July 1, 2004, which seems a distant possibility. The sewage discharge for south Kanpur area will be pumped from this IPS to the main trunk sewer leading to proposed Sewage Treatment Plant of 200 MLD capacity. PPCU contends that this work had started in September 2001 and is on a steady progress.

As on December 29, 2003, almost all the civil works have been completed. Pump house, screen chamber, sub station, common chamber and chamber where motors are to be installed have been completed. Generator room had been completed till the plinth level but its slabs are still to be laid down. The Electrical and Mechanical works are still pending and it would take 2-3 months in completion. Power substation of 1200 KVA is to be setup. The capacity of the generator will be 1000 KVA. The October report of PPCU indicates that 69.47% of the work has been completed.

The IPS at Rakhimandi (110 MLD) being built at an estimated cost of Rs. 1066 lakhs is proposed to be completed by July 1, 2004 which does not seem to be a possibility. Till October 2003 Rs 938.26 has been sanctioned for this IPS and only 46.54 % of work is completed. The Sisamau nala, which is at present discharging about 100 MLD of raw sewage in Ganga, will be diverted to this IPS and will be pumped to the proposed STP. PPCU contends that this work had started in September 2001 and is progressing well.

The land where the IPS Rakhimandi is coming up is under dispute and the matter has gone to the court.

Schemes of relieving sewers : The Government of U.P submitted the Detailed Project Report (DPR) for the tapping of Ganda Nala & Halwa Khanda Nala to NRCD in June 2002. These nalas are discharging raw sewage into Pandu River (South Kanpur). The estimated cost of the project is Rs. 1014.79 lakh. It was believed that NRCD would sanction the project in September 2002 and work would be completed in March 2004. It is the contention of PPCU that with the completion of this scheme, major sources of pollution from the city, directly or indirectly (through Pandu River), in the river Ganga would be tapped effectively. But as on January 14, 2004 DPR is still pending with NRCD and nothing has been done for the tapping of Ganda Nala and Halwa Khanda Nala.

The scheme for relieving sewers for Juhi Transport Nagar and Govind Nagar at an estimated cost of Rs. 378.79 lakhs was supposed to be completed by March 31, 2003. However, due to some problems, the deadline for the completion of the scheme was revised to May 31, 2003. As on January 14, 2004 96.72 % work is completed.

The scheme for relieving sewers from Bakarmandi to Rakhimandi at a sanctioned cost of Rs. 589.92 Lakhs is in progress. A relieving sewer was proposed to be laid from Bakarmandi to the IPS at Rakhimandi. PPCU believes that this will reduce the over burdening of 90" trunk sewer leading to Jajmau, and will completely stop the present flow of sewage through Sisamau nala to Ganga. Eco Friends’ team found that the UPJN was facing difficulties in laying the sewer lines as per the proposed scheme, owing to the narrow roads and also the risks involved to nearby buildings. As on January14, 2004 Rs 589.92 has been sanctioned and 75.58 % of work is completed, says PPCU. GM-GPCU, UPJN informed that IIT, Kanpur has been approached to seek an advice in this regard but we do not have money to pay for the consultancy. Seven major nalas/ drains are discharging into the Sisamau nala. All these nalas will be tapped under this scheme and the flow will be diverted to Rakhimandi IPS. The existing trunk sewers in central drainage district are proposed to be tapped at seven different places for effective transfer of additional sewage to South city drainage district. Sewers were to be laid down through trenches excavation to expedite their construction before rainy season of 2003. GM GPCU UPJN informed that the cost of trenchless excavation will be Rs 6 crore and since it is not provided in DPR, UP government will have to fund it and UP government does not have funds.

Status of the 200 MLD STP : The DPR for setting up of a Sewage Treatment Plant (200 MLD Capacity) based on UASB technology is still under consideration. Tender documents are under scrutiny at NRCD level. UPJN is preparing pre-qualification documents for eligible contractors for construction of 200 MLD UASB STP and Main Pumping Station (MPS). The estimated cost of this scheme is Rs. 5997.20 lakhs. It was planned to start the work in December 2002 and commission in December 2004.
As on Janaury, 2004 nothing has been done and the DPR is still pending with NRCD.

The proposed site for the plant is on the Kanpur-Hamirpur road, along river Pandu and will receive the sewage through 2200 mm trunk sewer from pumping stations at Rakhimandi, Munshipurwa and from Gandanala, Halwakhanda nala & COD Nala. The cost of land procurement (approx. Rs. 1,042 lakhs) will be borne by the Government of UP. The proposed land for the STP is disputed. Minutes of the Progress Review meeting state that the letter has been sent from the office of Director Land Acquisition (LA) to Principal Secretary UP GoUP for notification. GM-GPCU informs that notification under clause 6 is pending with Nagar Vikas Anubhag.

With this sewage treatment plant, Kanpur city will have a treatment capacity of 360 MLD sewage. PPCU believes that this capacity is sufficient enough to take care of the entire sewage generated in the major Central and South Drainage Districts of the City.

All the schemes listed above are funded by the Dutch Government and carried out by GPCU, UPJN. Till date Rs 49 Crore have been sanctioned under GAPSP.

The Jal Sansthan is carrying out six schemes under GAPSP, funded by the Dutch Government. These schemes are listed below with the estimated cost given in brackets.

1. Water supply rehabilitation- Production facilities (Rs. 210 lakh)
2. Water supply rehabilitation- Govind Nagar distt. (Rs. 80 lakh)

The above two works are almost complete. For the schemes listed below DPRs have been submitted and sanction is awaited.

3. KJS 5 (A) Treatment works Rehabilitation Programme (Rs. 245 lakh).
4. KJS 5 (B) Treatment works Rehabilitation Programme (Rs. 80 lakh).
5. KJS 6 (B) Water supply network Rehabilitation, Kakadeo (Rs. 96 lakh).
6. KJS 6 (C) Water supply network Rehabilitation, Kidwai Nagar (Rs. 80 lakh).

Three GAPSP schemes are under the charge of Kanpur Nagar Nigam (KNN.)

Total Solid Waste generation of Kanpur is 1350 tonnes and Total Solid Waste generation of South City is 338 tonnes. Under GAPSP two schemes are being executed on Solid Waste Management.

Solid Waste Management Scheme-I has received Rs.198.70 lakh, which is the complete amount of DPR, and 100% of the work has been completed. This scheme involved procurement of 9 Tipper Trucks, 1 Bulldozer, 3 Loaders, 5 Dumper Placer and 85 Containers. The PPCU contends, “With the procurement of above equipments/vehicles, it is expected that there will be 100% lifting & carting of solid waste of the Kanpur City to safe landfill areas”. The proposal for this scheme is still pending with NRCD.

Scheme II on Solid Waste Management involves scientific dumping of the Hazardous Waste (tannery sludge) from Jajmau area. The site has been identified at Rooma village and Engineers India Limited (EIL), New Delhi, has prepared DPR (costing approx. Rs. 225.61 lakhs). DPR has been submitted to NRCD for approval. KNN will execute the scheme and complete it before March 2004. Till January 28, 2004 nothing has been done, says PPCU.

Under the Low Cost Sanitation scheme, 49 community toilet complexes are proposed. At present 47 complexes are complete and work is in progress on remaining 2 units. KNN has so far received Rs 250 lakh against Rs 283.30 lakh for this scheme.

Questions raised by Eco Friends :

1. Most of the GAPSP schemes are incomplete and do not seem to be completed before 2004.DPR for the 200 MLD STP is pending with NRCD for long. What is the use of creating other facilities like IPS, sewer system etc. in the absence of treatment facility?

2. What will happen to GAPSP after Dutch have withdrawn the support?

3. KNN and tanneries owe approximately Rs 13 crore to UPJN towards the O&M costs of the 36 MLD CETP. Will this money be ever realized? How is the CETP being run in absence of the O&M funds? Where are the funds coming from? Are the GAPSP funds being diverted?

4. The Jajmau STPs, especially 130 MLD STP, have fallen flat due to lack of provision for O&M costs. A 200 MLD STP is proposed under GAP-II. Has any provision been made for the O&M cost of this plant? What would be the annual O&M cost of the plant? Where is the money going to come from?

5. Is there a provision for DG sets for the two IPS being constructed under GAPSP? Looking at the huge capacity of the IPS (75 MLD & 100 MLD), how much diesel per hour would be required to run these DG sets? Does the agency responsible for the O&M of the IPS have the resources to efficiently run these assets?

6. Some of the drains such as COD, Ganda Nala, Halwa Khanda etc falling into the river Pandu are to be intercepted and diverted to the proposed 200 MLD treatment plant. These drains also carry effluent from industries in the Panki and Dadanagar industrial areas. Has this been factored in while deciding on the treatment plant based on UASB technology?

7. Why is the IEL drain carrying industrial effluent and discharging into river Pandu is not being tapped under GAP Phase-II?

8. Has any study on the number of industries in Dadanagar and Panki industrial areas, kinds of pollutants in the effluents, and its effect on the soil and groundwater of the area been done? Has the water of the Pandu been analysed before launching of GAP II?

9. Rs.87.22 lakh had been spent on solid waste management under GAP I and Rs.200 lakh have already been spent on the same under GAPSP. What has been the impact of such a huge investment on the solid waste management in Kanpur? The sanitary condition of Kanpur is for everybody to see.

10. The completion date of land procurement for the proposed 200 MLD STP is March 30, 2004, while the projected date for completion of the plant is December 31, 2004. What is the progress in land procurement? Will the deadline be met?

11. What’s the composition (chemical profile) of sewage which is to be treated in the proposed 200 MLD STP?

12. What would happen if the proposed IPS at Rakhimandi and Munshipurwa do not function due to erratic and irregular power supply and non-availability of diesel to DG sets?

13. What would be the impact of GAPSP on river Ganga and Pandu?

14. GAP I failed completely to tap the small drains falling into Ganga. Are the agencies sure of diverting the Sisamau drain (discharge more than 100 MLD) effectively to the proposed treatment plant in the south of Kanpur?

15. In spite of so many court orders, why is Ganga littered with corpses and carcasses? Both the electric crematoria in Kanpur are functional, but the acceptability, and hence the output of these crematoria is very poor since these were restarted. What will the government do to bring the unclaimed and other bodies to these crematoria? Why is the crematorium at Mishra Colony, Unnao not being repaired? Why is action not being taken against the dead body dumping in Ganga from the Unnao side?

16. Why is there so much of overlapping of work amongst the various departments concerned? Why is there no accountability for failures / shortcomings?

17. Why is the biggest river de-pollution programme (GAP) devoid of public participation?

18. Will de-pollution of Ganga remain just rhetoric or will it be turned into a reality?

19. Why are we dependent on foreign money for cleaning our most important river, which is worshipped by more than 80 crore Hindus? The agencies responsible for O&M of various GAP assets look for outside support even for minor repair works.

20. Isn’t it shameful and ironical that we don’t have the resources, abilities, and capabilities to manage our waste but want to become super-power?

21. Ganga could not be cleaned in 16 years and still no one knows for sure as how many more years or decades would be required to make it pollution free. Should not we have a time bound programme like the one we’ve for the inter-linking of rivers? Why are the inter-linking and river cleaning programmes being dealt in isolation? There’s absolutely no coordination between the two projects.

22. Are we really serious and honest in our efforts to make Ganga pollution-free?

Conclusion : Ganga Action Plan is a complete failure in Kanpur. Raw sewage and tannery effluent still flow into Ganga through dozens of drains. The facilities created to tap, divert and treat the sewage and effluent under GAP Phase I are in complete shambles. There is total lack of a system and the entire government machinery is in a state of sheer helplessness and seems to have come to a stand still. Millions of rupees are being invested in creating various assets bothering little about the operation and maintenance of the same. Government is interested only in implementing the GAP considering it a successful model while GAP has proved neither to be Ganga friendly nor peoples friendly. The monitoring and evaluation done by various agencies is a farce and wasteful exercise.

Ganga Action Plan needs an independent evaluation and complete overhauling.

Contributors : Ganga Ambassadors of the following schools with the help of Eco Friends did the monitoring of Ganga and Ganga Action Plan in Kanpur.

  1. Delhi Public School, Kalyanpur: Status of sewage drains discharging into Ganga.
  2. The Chintels School: Status of proposed 200 MLD STP.
  3. Aloysius High School: Status of Intermediate Pumping Stations carrying domestic sewage.
  4. Wendy High School: Status of 5 MLD STP, 36 MLD CETP and 130 MLD STP.
  5. Dr Virendra Swaroop Public School, Govind Nagar: Status of Intermediate Pumping Stations at Munshipurwa and Rakhimandi.
  6. Sir Syed Public School: Status of Intermediate Pumping Stations carrying tannery effluent.
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Eco Friends’ Quarterly Monitoring Reports (July 2002-July 2003)

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